Background and Justification

The coastal areas of Southeast Asia contain great biodiversity, where livelihoods of the people of Southeast Asia directly and indirectly depend on this biodiversity. However, there are some difficulty to achieve harmonization between sustainable development of fishery community and coastal conservation, as their complex linkage between natural resources and ecosystem services and utilizations. Hereby the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN) and some Japanese Universities and research institutes would like to start a cooperative research project named “Coastal capability enhancement in Southeast Asia” in corporation with the Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC), Eastern Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center (EMDEC) of Department of Fisheries, Thailand, Faculty of Fisheries of Kasetsart University, Thailand, the University of Philippines Visayas, Aklan State University and other related institutions/organizations. In this project “holistic approach” will be adopted to give a full understanding how people utilizes the coastal resources, for the purpose to establish the rational and practical measures both for social and ecological sustainability. Based on the holistic data and information, we try to create new development concept named “Area Capability” that can show us how the ecosystem health can be harmonized with the welfare of the people. Through this project, we expect several inventories of ecosystem services and livelihoods of coastal area to complete the guideline of new research approach using the concept on Area Capability.  

Target Sites

3 Main Sites:

     Panay Is.-the Philippines

     Rayong Prov./Prachuab Kiri Khan Prov.– Thailand and,

     Ishigaki Is.-Japan

3 Sub Sites:

      Guimaras Is.-the Philippines

      Trang, Surat Tani Prov.- Thailand and,

      Mikawa Bay-Japan


Participating Organizations/Institutions:

  • Regional Institute
    • Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center (SEAFDEC-Training Department , Samut Prakan, Thailand and Aquaculture Department-the Philippines)
  • Japanese Institutes
    • Research Institute for Humanity and Nature (RIHN)
    • The University of Tokyo (Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, Institute for Advanced Studies on Asia)
    • Tokyo Univ. Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT)
    • School of Marine Science and Technology, Tokai University
    • School of contemporary sociology, Chukyo University
    • Kyoto University (Center of Southeast Asian Studies, Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Graduate School of Agriculture)
    • National Fisheries University
    • Kagoshima University (Faculty of Fisheries, The Kagoshima University Museum)
    • National research institute of fisheries science, Fisheries Research Agency of Japan
  • Thailand Institutes
    • Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University, Bangkok
    • Eastern Marine Fisheries Research and Development Center-EMDEC, Department of Fisheries of Thailand, Rayong Prov.
  • Philippines’ Institutes
    • University of Philippines of Visayas
    • Aklan State University

 

Objectives

The coastal area, consisting of the eco-tone between land and the sea, naturally provides a wide range of habitat for flora and fauna. It has one of the richest biodiversity and the highest primary productivity on the earth. Its ecosystem is also characterized with the complexity and vulnerability. Fluctuation of water flows such as river water discharge, tidal flow and sea current easily affects the food chains and material flows of the ecosystem, causing irreversible shift of ecosystem in some cases. In Southeast Asia, coastal areas are characterized by the close linkage between ecosystem and local people. The coastal area is the basis of the livelihood of local people, and human intervention is deeply embedded in ecosystem. This linkage enhances the complexity and affects the vulnerability of the ecosystem in the region.

 

Activities

Component 1:  Capture Capability survey for coastal fisheries

          Activity 1: Standardization of Capture Capability survey and compilation of data

          Share the experiences for Capture Capability survey for standardizing the data format and analysis methods. And assemble existing data and information of Capture Capability.

          Activity 2: Fishing gear/boat and target species survey

          Data and information on Capture Capability including fishing gears and boats including size, materials, structure, operation, fishing ground, initial and operational cost, average daily catch amount and species compositions etc., are collected through observation and interview survey at fishing sites. Data and information are installed into data base which can be accessed through web site. The field survey of Capture Capability will be conducted at target sites.    

          Activity 3: Publication of the field guides of Capture Capability of coastal fisheries

          Inventory books of fishing gears/boat and operations of Southeast Asian coastal area will be published with photos and illustrations.


Component 2:  Biological resource survey

          Activity 1: Standardization of Taxonomic and DNA analyses

          Several participating researchers will be invited to Japan for several weeks to exchange ideas and experiences and standardize methodologies of taxonomy and DNA studies. And the visiting researchers discuss about joint research activities and publications of outcomes among members.

          Activity 2: Specimen collection for biological resource analysis

          Biological Specimen will be collected in target sites. Size, Location, Species name of specimens will be recorded and tissue specimen for DNA analyses will be preserved (the tissue specimen will be also used for Material and Stable Isotope analyses). Specimens will be stored in accordance with the standardized methods. Taxonomic and DNA analyses will be conducted at RIHN and collaborative institutes. All data and analyses results will be installed into the data base. 

          Activity 3: Publication of the field guide books of biological resources

          Inventory database and reference books on biological resources in Southeast Asian Coastal area will be published with photos and illustration.


Component 3:  Environment assessments and ecosystem health survey

          Activity 1: Standardization of environment assessments and ecosystem health analyses

          Several participating researchers will be invited to Japan for several weeks to exchange ideas and experiences and standardize methodologies of material flow analyses including stable isotope analyses and biomass surveys. And the visiting researchers discuss about joint research activities and publications of outcomes among members.

          Activity 2: Specimen collection for material flow analyses and biomass surveys

          Specimen for material flow analysis and biomass survey will be collected in target sites. Specimens will be preserved in accordance with the standardized methods. Data and information of specimen will be installed into the database. Material flow analyses and biomass estimation analyses will be conducted at RIHN and collaborative institutes. 

          Activity 3: Publication of the Research Protocol guideline on ecosystem health

          Research Protocol guideline on ecosystem health of coastal area will be published including material flow, chemical and stable isotope analyses and biomass evaluations. 


Component 4: Human capability survey for Coastal Area

          Activity 1: Standardization of Human capability survey for Coastal Area

          Several participating researchers will be invited to Japan for several weeks to exchange ideas and experiences and standardize methodologies of social and human capability surveys. And the visiting researchers discuss about joint research activities and publications of outcomes among members.

          Activity 2: Household and Social survey

          Household data including member list, Job history, Sex, Age, Education, incomes, properties, health conditions, hopes, and participation to social activities, experiences of migration, religion and ethno-linguistic groups are collected through interview and questioner scurvies. Inter-industrial structures are examined based on the data and survey. Regulation, registration and other official administrative affairs are examined. All data and information will be installed into database. Approximate 100 households’ data will be collected at each area.    

          Activity 3: Publication of the research protocol guideline on social aspects and inventory books on coastal livelihood and society

          Research Protocol guideline on social aspects of coastal area including interview and questioner surveys and analyses will be published. And inventory books of social and livelihoods in Southeast Asian Coastal area will be published with photos and illustration.      


Component 5: Development of acoustic survey equipments and systems for shallow waters   

          Activity 1: Developing the new data collection equipments and analysis systems of acoustic survey at coastal area.

          Acoustic data collection system including equipment modification will be conducted for coastal area survey. And analysis methodology is also developed.

          Activity 2: Field test of the developed equipments and system 

          Newly developed equipments and systems will be tested at field.

          Activity 3: On-site-Training of new acoustic survey equipments and systems

          The operation of the new acoustic survey equipments and systems will be demonstrated around set-net area. And the analysis of the data is also shown to expected users. 

          Activity 4: Publication of the research protocol guideline of acoustic survey for coastal area

          Operation manual and guide books of acoustic survey in coastal area will be published.


Component 6: Community-based Set-net introduction for coastal management and HRD

          Activity 1: Support of the set-net installation and operation

          Technical support of installation of set-net at coastal area will be provided from experts.

          Activity 2: Impact evaluation of set-net fishery on environment and livelihood

          Species and size compositions of the fish catch of set-net and other fishery are examined based on the log book, statistics and observation data. And the biodiversity aspects of target species will be examined by DNA and material analyses. Water quality and material flow condition around set-net will be examined. Information of fishing grounds and operation time of the fishery conducted around set-net will be collected for impact evaluation. Income and time allocation data and information of villagers who live around set-net are analyzed to clarify the linkage among set-net installation and livelihood changes.

          Activity 3:Publication of the Set-net installation manual and management guide book

          Set-net installation manual and management guide books will be published.

 

Component 7: Community-based fishery resource rehabilitation for coastal management and rural development (Based and implemented in the Philippines*)

          Activity 1: Technical support of the hatchery works

          Technical supports to establish and to manage local hatchery activities will be conducted from experts.

          Activity 2: Conduct stock enhancement works with local institutions

          Release works of larvae and/or fly of important species in Batan Bay in the Phillipines

          Activity 3: Impact evaluation of rehabilitation on environment and livelihood

          Environment of coastal area around rehabilitation sites including water and material flows, species diversity and biomass will be examined using the scientific analyses. And data and information of fishy catch, incomes of the fishermen, social capital, linkages among sectors, job opportunity, time allocation, food safety and health condition of fishermen will be gathered to evaluate impact from rehabilitation activity

          Activity 4: Publication of the local hatchery management and rehabilitation activities for local development

          Manual and guide books of the small scale community based hatchery activities and its management are published.


Component 8: Database construction, Workshops and Wrap-up Activities

          Activity 1: Developing the new database system

          Integrated database will be established. Main server is installed at RIHN. Mirror servers will be installed at local areas.

          Activity 2: Workshops and Seminar of Area Capability Approach

          Workshops and Seminar will be held for exchange data, information, experiences, ideas, and results of this study.

          Activity 3: International Symposium of Area Capability Approach

          International symposium for Area Capability Approach for coastal development will be held.

          Activity 4: Area Capability Guidebook Publication

          Area Capability Approach guide book will be published based on the collaborative research results.

 

Achievements of  2015 the Project Implementation 

The over-all activities of standardization of methods on existing data collection, monthly field surveys and tests, equipments and system development and all data collection on environment are in progress at the present. 

The first 4 years of the project implementation emphasized on the preliminary surveys to examine the present status of the resources, biology, livelihoods, social activities, environment that would contribute to the future evaluation of the area capability in the coastal areas which uses the set-net as a core of the project activity.

Physical conditions such as wind, current and oceanographic parameters are key factors for catch-ability and performance of the set-net and other fishing activities. A series of preliminary surveys have been repeatedly made, monitored and followed-up periodically. However, since the fishing season for set net is limited for only 7 months (Oct-April), therefore, periodical monitor and follow up surveys on the fishing activities and oceanography are considered incomplete for the whole year and must be fulfilled.  While for the land surveys (social, livelihoods and fish sampling) are in progress. 

Some survey results were disseminated in the public by means of oral and poster presentations through annual RIHN Seminar for the first, second and third year of the project implementation.

The SEAFDEC Publication: Fish for the People, Volume 13 No. 1: 2015. The Area Capability Study in SE Asian region especially in the Eastern Gulf of Thailand focusing on the Rayong Set-net is one of the interesting issues as originally prepared by Dr. Ishikawa S. and the team, entitled "Balancing Fishery Resource Utilization and Conservation for Environmental Sustainability and Socio-economic Stability". This article appears on pages 13-20. (It's available for download on the SEAFDEC's website : http://www.seafdec.org/publications/)

Summary of all activities and findings would be reported in the 4th RIHN Project Seminar held in November 2015, in Kyoto, Japan.