Each year, a staggering 12 million tons of contaminated plastic pollute the ocean, with an estimated 269,000 tons of plastic waste per square mile worldwide. Without urgent intervention, experts predict that the volume of ocean waste will surpass that of marine animals in the coming decades. Land-based activities account for approximately 80 percent of plastic waste in the oceans, largely due to inadequate management practices. The remaining 20 percent originates from marine activities, particularly fishing. Awareness of this issue has grown, leading to government action and increased recognition of producer responsibilities among private companies. Although progress is still needed, there is a growing commitment to managing land-based waste. Additionally, marine activities contribute 20 percent of plastic waste, including over 640,000 tons of debris, nets, and fishing gear entering the ocean annually. This debris poses a grave threat to marine life, causing the deaths of sea turtles, whales, dolphins, and other creatures through ingestion and entanglement. Furthermore, the suffocating effect of nets on corals impedes their growth and survival. (Source: National Geography Thai Version)